CHAPTER I -- RACIAL REALITIES IN EUROPE
NOT long ago a well-known British scientist was showing me his collection of Egyptian antiquities. Up and down the long museum hall we strolled, gazing at the innumer- able relics of a remote past. Safely ensconced in glass- covered cases, these exiles from the sunny land of the Pharaohs looked strangely alien in the gray light of a London afternoon. Presently the scientist halted before a show-case. "Here," said he, tapping the glass with his forefinger -- "here is something which to a student of racial matters like yourself will be of peculiar interest." I looked. The case was filled with little heads and busts made of burnt clay, or terra-cotta. There were more than a hundred of them, neatly arranged in long rows. "These little busts," went on the scientist, "were made to represent the different types of foreigners residing in the city of Memphis shortly after the Persian conquest of Egypt, about 2,500 years ago. Apparently made for the purpose of being carried in some sacred procession, they were deposited in a shrine which was recently discovered by our excavators." 2 I looked closer -- and was filled with astonishment. Those ancient busts, modelled after men in their graves these 2,500 years, were strangely familiar. Many of them looked exactly like men who walk the earth to-day. There were Arabs not at all different from the Arabs whom I had seen sitting beneath their black Bedouin tents or swaying upon camels crossing the desert sands. There were Armenians indistinguishable from Armenians whom I had viewed by thousands in refugee camps throughout the Near East. There were negroes just like Georgia cotton-pickers, and there was a Jew who might have stepped in off Broadway. Furthermore, there were busts representing historic racial types such as Greeks, Persians, and Babylonians -- races which no longer exist, yet whose appearance is known to us from statuary and kindred relics come down to us from ancient times. Those old Greeks and Persians depicted in the busts were instantly recognizable as the same breeds of men sculptured on the friezes of the Athenian Parthenon and on the bas-reliefs of Persia's ruined capital, Persepolis. On the contrary, the busts did not in the least resemble modern Greeks and Persians -- peoples which, though bearing the same names, have practically none of the ancient blood. Lastly, there were a few busts depicting racial types which have perished without leaving even a historic memory, so that to-day we have no idea of who they were or whence they came. To my mind that series of little heads and busts, fashioned by the deft fingers of old Egyptian craftsmen, is a most striking illustration of the mighty drama of man's 3 racial life athwart the ages. Just think of it! Here we have a series of statuettes showing the various types of foreigners who walked the streets of an ancient Egyptian city. Pass 2,500 years, and what do we find? We find that some of those race types still survive relatively unchanged; that others have perished, leaving their names but not their blood; and that still others have vanished so utterly that not even a memory of them remains. And all this in 2,500 years! What rapid changes! Does that last remark sound strange? Let us, then, remember that man has probably existed for something like 500,000 years. Comparing man's race life with man's individual life, what signifies a couple of thousand years? Yes, for 500,000 years men have walked the earth -- men of all sorts and conditions, of the most varied appearance and capacity. And for untold ages men have been divided into sharply marked races, ranging all the way from types so primitive that they looked like apes up to types such as the ancient Greeks, who were certainly handsomer and probably much more intelligent than any human stock now alive. And the great drama of man's race life still unfolds, never more intensely than to-day. More and more we are coming to realize the fundamental importance of race in human affairs. More and more we see that the racial factor lies behind most of the world's problems. This is not solely an academic matter to be left for the consideration of scientists and historians; on the contrary, it is about the livest, most practical subject that can engage the attention of thinking 4 men and women to-day. A general understanding of racial matters is necessary for an intelligent appreciation of current events. Would you understand what is happening in the world, why nations act as they do, what their relations are to America, and what our policy should be toward them? You cannot fully understand these things unless you have some general idea of the racial factors involved. And, unless you thus understand, you cannot act so successfully and efficiently in your own every-day activities, whether you be banker, manufacturer, politician, farmer, professional man or wage-earner. Directly or indirectly, these things touch us one and all, both in our common capacity as citizens and in our private capacity as individuals. Especially do we need to regard the racial factor when considering Europe, because hitherto in considering European affairs that factor has been disregarded. When we look at other parts of the world, racial distinctions leap to the eye and the racial factor obtains proper recognition. Who can think of China, India, Mexico, Africa, without instantly sensing the significance of race? When we turn to Europe, however, we do not at first glance get any such clear-cut impression. Of course we may realize in a general way that inborn distinctions exist between the inhabitants of various European countries, that Swedes differ markedly from Spaniards, say, or Russians from Englishmen. Still, even then, we are apt to think of such differences not so much in terms of race as in terms of other things, like nationality, language, religion, and culture. We look at the political map of Europe 5 and there find a continent divided into a number of national states with sharply defined political frontiers, jealously independent of one another, emphasizing their respective policies, languages, manners, and customs. We see them engaged in bitter rivalries and fighting bloody wars over just such things. What wonder if we come to feel that those are the things which really matter, that by comparison other elements in Europe's problems may be relatively disregarded? And yet, is this true? Are there not other factors, deep- seated but powerful, working behind the scenes? Assuredly there is one such -- race. The discoveries of modem science reveal more and more clearly the fundamental importance of race in human affairs. Of course there are other basic factors to be considered, like climate and soil. Yet even these are not so universal in their effects as race, which subtly but inevitably influences every phase of human existence. Whoever begins looking at Europe from the racial angle is astonished at the new light thrown upon its problems, at the apparent mysteries that are explained, at the former riddles that are solved. Europe's seemingly tangled history grows much simpler, while present-day conditions become more understandable. Look at a race map of Europe. How it differs from the political maps we are accustomed to see! Gone are all those intricate national frontiers. Instead of a Europe split into many states, we see a Europe inhabited by three races. These races are known as the Nordic race, the Alpine race, and the Mediterranean race. They have all been in Europe for thousands of years, and to them 6 the great bulk of Europe's present inhabitants belong. Only in Eastern Europe do we find a perceptible admixture of Asiatic elements, while in Southern Europe we discover certain infusions of negroid African blood. Both these alien elements have, however, entered Europe in relatively recent historic times. Roughly speaking, the European races spread horizontally in three broad bands across the European continent. To the north lie the Nordics, centring about the Baltic Sea and stretching from the British Isles to Western Russia. To the south lie the Mediterraneans, centring about the Mediterranean Sea as the Nordics do about the Baltic. Between the Nordics and Mediterraneans thrusts the Alpine race, stretching from Russia and the Near East clear across mid-Europe until its outposts reach the Atlantic Ocean in Western France and Northern Spain. These three races differ markedly from one another, not merely in physical appearance but also in intellectual and emotional qualities. Although they have been in Europe for thousands of years, have been in constant contact with one another, and have widely intermarried, they have never really fused and remain essentially distinct to-day. Right here we must emphasize the basic quality of race -- its great persistence. Although the European races are unquestionably closer to one another in origin than they are to more remote human stocks like the yellow Mongolians of Eastern Asia or the African negroes, they nevertheless separated ages ago, and for ages thereafter remained separate. During that immense period of isolation they developed their racial individualities 7 so that when they met again in Europe they were clearly distinct both in physique and in character. A glance is enough to distinguish full-blooded representatives of these European races. The true Nordic is tall and blond, with a long head, blue or gray eyes, and a fair skin. The true Mediterranean is short-statured, slenderly built, long-headed like the Nordic, but dark- complexioned, with black hair and eyes and a skin inclined to be more or less swarthy. The pure-blooded Alpine is also dark-complexioned, but differs from both the other races in being round-skulled. Of medium height, the Alpine is of a distinctly heavy build, bones and muscles being alike stockier and less gracefully proportioned than either the tall Nord or the slight Mediterranean. To visualize these race types, call to mind a typical Scandinavian for the Nordic, a Southern Italian or Spaniard for the Mediterranean, and an average peasant from Central or Eastern Europe for the Alpine. The illustrations speak for themselves. Few things are more interesting and enlightening than a study of the movements of these races since their emergence upon the European scene long before the dawn of history, many thousands of years ago. The vast migrations, the brilliant conquests, the striking shifts of fortune from age to age, reveal a mighty drama of which the recent war was only a latest episode. For let us always remember that the play still goes on, with the actors much the same as they were in ancient times. This is a fact of the greatest practical importance, because these races differ not merely in outward appearance but also in mind and in temperament. Thus the relative 8 strength and importance of the different racial elements in a nation will largely determine every phase of that nation's life, from its manners, customs, and ideals to its government and its relations with other nations. Furthermore, knowledge of its racial make-up will enable us to understand many of the changes in a nation's past and also to get a clearer idea of present tendencies, because we must not forget that, though races themselves change very slowly, the ratio between the racial elements in a nation is constantly changing. This occurs not only where the racial elements live distinct from one another; it is true even where extensive intermarriage has taken place. Racial characteristics are about the most persistent things that we know of. Developed and set by ages of isolation and inbreeding, they do not fuse when crossed with other characteristics of a different nature. On the contrary, they remain distinct in the mixed offspring, and the descendants of such mixed marriages tend to sort themselves out as belonging predominantly to one or other of the original types, in accordance with the hereditary laws applying to their particular cases. Europe is a striking example of the persistence of race, because the three great European stocks all belong to the same main branch of the human species. They are all white men and, however remote their common origin may have been, they are more closely related to one another than they are to more distant branches of mankind like the yellow races of Eastern Asia or the black races of Africa. And yet during the long ages of their separation from their original source they so far diverged in type that when they met again in Europe they did so as 9 true races distinct from one another, and thousands of years of contact have not sufficed to fuse them again. On the contrary, even in those regions where racial mixture has been most prolonged and general we find populations not fused into new intermediate varieties with harmonious, stably blended qualities but composed of obviously mixed individuals most of whom can be classified as belonging mainly to one or other of the ancestral types. Furthermore, in those parts of Europe where race mixture has not been general or recent, we find the inhabitants to be mostly of almost pure racial stock. This illustrates another law of races -- the tendency to breed out alien strains when these are not too numerous, so that such strains ultimately vanish and never reappear in the stock. The racial persistence displayed by a long-settled, well- acclimated population of homogeneous stock is truly extraordinary. This may occur even with small communities, as shown by the so-called racial islets not infrequently found in various parts of Europe. In such cases small communities belonging to one stock have retained their racial identity for many generations, although surrounded by people of another stock. A striking illustration of this is the racial islets to be found in Norway. The bulk of the Norwegian people are pure Nordics -- tall, blond, long-skulled, and fair-skinned. Yet here and there, in out-of-the-way nooks of the Norwegian coast, are found communities most of whose inhabitants are relatively short, dark, and roundskulled. These people are obviously Alpines, and they have been clearly identified as the descendants of Alpines who settled along the coasts of Norway thousands of 10 years ago. Yet these people to-day still differ not only physically but also intellectually and temperamentally from the rest of the population. This is so evident that they have always been looked upon as different, almost alien, by their Nordic neighbors. This illustration shows why the racial make-up of a nation is not merely of scientific interest but also of great practical importance; because, as already stated, races differ from one another as much mentally and temperamentally as they do physically, and because such mental and temperamental differences are precisely the factors which in great part determine national development. Thus, in order to understand a nation, we must find out its racial make-up. Lastly, we must remember that, except in a few cases where a people springs from only one race, the racial make-up of a people is not a fixed quantity but a highly unstable ratio, which is always changing and which may change very rapidly as one racial element is favored or penalized by a variety of circumstances like wars, revolutions, emigration, immigration, or social changes such as the growth of city life and the factory system. Bearing these things in mind, let us see what are the broad mental and temperamental characteristics of the three European races. We have already observed their general physical appearance. Now let us examine their inner qualities. The Mediterranean race is a distinctly southern type. Probably originating in South Central Asia, it entered Europe by way of the Mediterranean basin, which has ever since remained the centre of the race. The Mediterraneans 11 dislike extreme cold and high mountains, and tend to keep fairly close to the sea. Their most northerly extension was through France to the British Isles, which they settled many thousand years ago and where they still form the bulk of the population in Ireland, Wales, and some parts of Scotland. It is to be remembered, however, that the British Isles have a climate much milder than most countries of the same latitude. The Mediterranean temperament is emotional, often to a high degree. Passionate, excitable, loving and hating intensely, yet inclined to fickle changes, the Mediterranean is prone to lack stability and tenacity. He is social, yet individualistic within his group. Neither in politics nor in war has he a high sense of discipline. This, combined with his want of tenacity, has made him relatively weak in the competition of races. Mediterraneans have usually gone down before the attacks of both Nordics and Alpines, so that many parts of Europe once held by Mediterraneans are to-day inhabited by Nordic or Alpine stocks. Mediterraneans have rarely succeeded in founding strong, enduring governments. Strong magnetic leaders can do great things with them, but the personal element is necessary, and naturally either dies with the leader or shifts to some other strong personality that captivates the fickle multitude. The most attractive and certainly the most valuable traits of the Mediterranean stock are its artistic gifts -- its keen sense of beauty, form, and color; its love of music, poetry, and other arts; and its general joy of life. The Mediterranean intellect is usually quick and often brilliant, though apt to be superficial. The race has, 12 however, produced many men of high intellectual quality, particularly in the past. Unfortunately, some branches of the stock are racially impaired and impoverished to-day, both by a breeding out of the most intelligent strains and by the admixture of vast numbers of nondescript, inferior Asiatic and African elements. This is clearly the case with the populations of Southern Italy and Portugal. Matters are even worse in parts of the Near East, inhabited in ancient times by Mediterranean stocks who built up brilliant civilizations, but to-day inhabited by mongrel populations of a very poor quality. The Alpine race originated on the high plateaus of West Central Asia, and it has never lost the imprint of its ancestral home. It is emphatically a continental stock, taking naturally to highlands or to inland plains and showing little liking for the sea. The Alpines are a sturdy, tenacious race, very stable, but apt to be stolid and unimaginative. T hey have a strong sense of group solidarity, stick together, cling to the land wherever they settle, and when they do migrate move in groups. This is the secret of their successful expansion in Europe. The Alpines are not individually so warlike as the Mediterraneans and are far less warlike than the Nordics. Their advances have usually been slow and their conquests seldom either rapid or spectacular. Nevertheless, these advances, once made, have rarely been lost, at least in the racial sense. The great Alpine advances have been like glaciers, in solid masses, expelling or overwhelming the peoples they encountered and thoroughly settling the new territories. Mediterraneans have seemed 13 unable to resist these mass advances. Accordingly, regions like Central France and Northern Italy, once Mediterranean lands, are to-day mainly Alpine in race. Furthermore, Mediterraneans have seldom subdued Alpine peoples and imposed themselves as conquerors. For these reasons there has been comparatively little mixture between the two races. Far different have been the relations between the Alpine and Nordic races. Ever since the dawn of history the restless, energetic Nordics have been coming down upon the Alpines, overwhelming their territories and setting themselves up as masters. Wherever the odds have not been too great the Nordics have usually won the batties. Yet the fact remains that, racially speaking, the Alpines have not only held their own but have actually gained ground at the Nordics' expense. Both in Eastern and in Central Europe many regions once racially Nordic are to-day inhabited by predominantly Alpine populations. This seeming paradox is explained by the Alpine qualities of tenacity, instinctive solidarity, and dogged endurance. Their very passiveness has helped to give them the ultimate victory. The Nordic might conquer them and set himself up as master. The Alpines might submit, become his loyal subjects, even accept his language and culture. Outwardly the land might be Nordicized. But racially it would mean merely a Nordic aristocracy laid like a thin top dressing on a solid Alpine soil. The Alpines would cling to the land, stick together, and gradually absorb their conquerors. Ultimately the region would be once more inhabited by an almost wholly Alpine 14 population, perhaps showing some Nordic traits that would be slowly bred out of the stock. On the other hand, where Alpines have peopled regions once racially Nordic, they have usually done so not by sudden conquest but by gradual infiltration. Often such regions were temporarily underpopulated, the Nordic inhabitants having been thinned by war or drained off by migration. Once in, however, the Alpines would take firm root. Perhaps the Nordics might conquer them and the Alpines cease to be independent political groups. Yet racially they could survive and prosper. Germany is a striking example of all this. Down to the fall of the Roman Empire, Germany was almost wholly a Nordic land. To-day it is mainly Alpine in race. Only in Northwestern Germany is the population still predominantly Nordic in blood. This change has come about through a long series of wars, migrations, and other conditions that have favored the Alpines at the Nordics' expense. It has also profoundly changed the character of the German people. Compare the solid, well-disciplined, docile German masses of to-day with the restless, fiercely individualistic Teutonic tribes that surged across the Roman world and turned Britain into a Nordic Anglo-Saxon land! The attitude of the present German people illustrates a trait characteristic of Alpines generally -- the tendency to accept the rule of masterful minorities. Left to themselves, Alpines rarely build strong, enduring states, at least of any considerable size. Whether this is due to lack of initiative and imagination, or to still other defects, it is undoubtedly the case. The Alpine manages 15 his local affairs well enough. With his strong group feeling, he evolves village and regional organizations that work smoothly. But beyond that his political sense falters. The Alpines thus tend to form small political units, which unite with difficulty and are more likely to be at odds with one another. This is one of the chief reasons why the Balkan peoples, who are of course mainly Alpines, are always quarrelling and fighting among themselves. On the other hand, where Alpines are under the guidance of strong masters they can be disciplined into powerful states. Russia is a notable example. The early Russians, who like the other Slav tribes, were practically pure-blooded Alpines, were divided into many groups at chronic odds with one another and thus an easy prey to their neighbors. So intolerable did this situation become that they actually invited in foreign rulers, sending the following message to some Nordic Scandinavian chiefs: "Our land is great and has everything in abundance, but it lacks order and justice. Come and take possession and rule over us." The Scandinavians came, established a strong government, and laid the foundations of the mighty Russian Empire. From that day to this Russia has been ruled mainly by persons of non-Alpine blood. The present Bolshevik government is no exception to the rule. Very few of its members spring from the Alpine peasant masses. "Peasant" is in fact the term which best describes the typical Alpine. Whether in France, South Germany, Poland or Russia, the type is fundamentally the same. On the contrary, there are no such peasant masses in 16 Scandinavia or the British Isles. Why? Because there is no Alpine blood. Scandinavia is almost purely Nordic, and the British Isles are either Nordic or Mediterranean in race. The total absence of Alpine blood in the British Isles is undoubtedly one of the chief reasons for the high qualities of its inhabitants. For despite the Alpine's many solid virtues, it seems to be the least gifted of the three European stocks. Its type, as already stated, is the peasant. In cities the Alpine tends to be lower middle class -- what the French call petit bourgeois. The effect of Alpine blood upon a nation, though steadying, is also levelling, if not depressing. Compared with either Nordics or Mediterraneans, the Alpine is a passive element. The Alpine race has contributed little that is truly great to politics, art or ideas. Yet its tenacity, endurance, and vitality favor its steady growth, and wherever it has a foothold it appears to be increasing at the expense of the Nordic and Mediterranean elements. Let us now consider the third great European stock-the Nordic race. The Nordics seem to have originated in Northeastern Europe, though the shores of the Baltic Sea have been the racial centre since very early times. They are a distinctly northern stock, inured to cold and storm; but they do not thrive in hot, sunny southlands. They also seem to take naturally to the sea. The outstanding characteristic of the Nordic race is its restless creative energy. In this peculiar quality it surpasses not only the other European stocks but also all the other branches of mankind. The Nordics are assuredly the most masterful breed that the world has 17 ever seen. For thousands of years they have poured forth from their northland homes in conquering waves over Europe and many parts of Asia as well. The Aryan invaders of India were Nordics; so were the ancient Persians; while the Greeks and Romans of classic times contained much Nordic blood, at least among the ruling classes. Always and everywhere the Nordics have been a race of warriors, sailors, pioneers, and explorers. Unlike the Alpines, with their slow mass migrations and peaceful penetration, the Nordics have ranged far and wide, often in small numbers, but winning their way by their fierce energy and great fighting power. Conquering peoples sometimes vastly superior in numbers, the Nordics have settled down as an aristocratic ruling class, and they have usually known how to perpetuate their rule because of their high political ability. Political ability is one of the Nordics' chief gifts, which they display both in ruling others and in ruling themselves. The Nordic is at once democratic and aristocratic. Among his own kind he is democratic. Profoundly individualistic and touchy about his personal rights, neither he nor his fellows will tolerate tyranny. None of the primitive Nordic tribes had despotic rulers, while modern constitutional government was developed by the Nordic English and has not been really successful except among peoples with a strong strain of Nordic blood. Where the Nordic establishes himself among other races he is instinctively aristocratic. Feeling himself the ruler and the superior, he prides himself on his race and seeks to guard the purity of his blood. Throughout Europe 18 to-day the old aristocratic class tends to be of Nordic origin. Even in countries where the Nordic element has been mainly bred out of the population what little Nordic blood remains is found chiefly concentrated in the old upper-class families. Nothing better illustrates the persistence of race qualities than the way in which Nordics have everywhere shown the same striking traits. From the dawn of history to the present day they have acted very much the same. Look at the Nordic Aryan invaders of India as described in the old Sanscrit scriptures! Those first Nordics to appear upon the stage of history entered India nearly 4000 years ago. Yet the family likeness is unmistakable. Tall, fair; hard fighting, yet jovial; loving good food, drink, fresh air, and exercise; chivalrous toward their women; despising the little dark negroid aborigines as monkeys, and setting up a rigid color line -- how like our Anglo-Saxon pioneers! This description of the ancient Aryans shows us merely one of the many Nordic stocks that have racially perished. For not only in Asia but also in Southern and Eastern Europe, Nordic elements, once numerous and powerful, have either entirely disappeared or to-day survive as mere lingering traces with scant significance in the national life of the countries where they are found. Only where Nordics have thoroughly occupied a country, expelling or overwhelming the previous inhabitants, has the racial conquest been promanent. The best European examples of this are England and Scotland. The Anglo-Saxon invaders turned both countries into Nordic lands, the former Mediterranean population almost disappearing 19 In Wales and Ireland, on the contrary, the Nordics never became more than a conquering aristocracy, so that in those countries the old Mediterranean element still forms the mass of the population. The greatest expansion of the Nordic race has in fact occurred outside Europe -- in the United States, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand. Here the few aborigines of very primitive types were quickly eliminated and populations of practically pure Nordic type were established, since the pioneering settlers were overwhelmingly of Nordie stock. The only exception was the settlers of French Canada, who were mainly Alpine in race. Whether these Nordic conquests will be racially permanent is of course impossible to say. In the United States especially, recent immigration has brought in floods of Alpine and Mediterranean blood, and unless immigration from Southern and Eastern Europe is restricted and kept restricted the racial character of the American people will be rapidly and radically altered. In Canada the French element is showing the usual Alpine characteristics -- clinging to the soil, sticking together, and slowly but surely enlarging its racial area. However, in all these lands the Nordic dement still forms the bulk of the population and can, if it so elects, secure its racial future. On the continent of Europe Nordic race prospects are not so bright. Everywhere save in Scandinavia -- where it forms virtually the entire population -- the Nordic element seems to be rapidly on the wane. Old handicaps, like war and migration, which have penalized the race in the past have been supplemented by new handicaps, like industrialism and city life, the upshot being a steady decline 20 of the Nordics in favor of the Alpine and Mediterranean elements. It is really startling when one looks back into history and sees how the Nordics have diminished racially in Europe during the past 1000 years. Their heyday was the fall of the Roman Empire. At that time and for centuries thereafter, both Western and Central Europe were strongly Nordic. The Alpine and Mediterranean elements were either reduced to serfdom or driven into the more mountainous and infertile regions. Since then, however, the tide has been running the other way. War has been a terrible scourge to the Nordic race. In the numberless wars that have raged in Europe the Nordics have done most of the fighting and suffered most of the losses, while the age of discovery and colonization that began with Columbus still further thinned their ranks in Europe, since it was adventurous Nordics who formed the overwhelming majority of explorers and pioneers to new lands. Perhaps even more serious blows have been dealt the race by the conditions of modem life. A century ago Europe began to be transformed from an agricultural to an urbanized, industrial area. Countless cities and manufacturing centres grew up, where men were close packed and were subjected to all the evils of congested living. Of course, such conditions are not ideal for any stock. Nevertheless, the Nordic suffered more than any one else. The Nordic is essentially a high-standard man. He requires healthful living conditions, and pines when deprived of good food, fresh air, and exercise. So long as Europe was mainly agricultural the Nordic usually got these things. In fact, in cool Northern 21 and Central Europe an agricultural environment actually favored the big blond Nordic as against the slighter, less muscular Mediterranean, while in the hotter south the Nordic upper class, being the rulers, were protected from field labor and thus survived as an aristocracy. Under modern conditions, however, the crowded city and the cramped factory weed out the Nordic much faster than they do the Alpine or the Mediterranean, both of which stocks seem to be able to stand such an environment with less damage to themselves. It is needless to add that the late war and its aftermath have been terrible blows to the Nordic race. This rapid decline of the Nordic steck in Europe is a very serious matter. The Nordic's great energy, political ability, and high level of intelligence are vital to Europe's prosperity and progress. The peculiar qualities of the Nordic intellect are just the ones which to-day would be most missed. One of the Nordic's most valuable traits is his adventurous curiosity. This makes him preeminent not only as a pioneer and explorer but also as an inventor and scientific investigator. The Mediterranean probably excels the Nordic in music and the fine arts. But in the intellectual fields the Nordic excels the Mediterranean and vastly outstrips the Alpine. Our modern scientific age is mainly a product of Nordic genius. Deprived of that genius, it would rapidly decline. It therefore seems as though those nations which possess most Nordic blood will tend to be the most progressive as well as the most energetic and politically able. Important assets, these, for the future! Let us now take a brief survey of the present racial 22 make-up of the European nations, based upon the latest scientific estimates that have been made. Our survey will shatter many old notions that used to prevail when race was confused with matters like language and culture. For example, it used to be thought that France, Italy, and Spain were all members of a Latin race. We now know that there never was any such race and that these three nations differ widely in racial make-up. Beginning our survey with the British Isles, the first important point to be noted is the total absence of Alpine blood. England and Scotland and are predominantly Nordic, while Wales and Ireland are predominantly Mediterranean. Scotland is the most Nordic, over four-fifths of the population being of that blood. England is about four-fifths Nordic and one-fifth Mediterranean. In England the Mediterranean element seems to be increasing. A century or two ago it was probably insignificant. Since then the growth of city and factory life, emigration of Nordics, and immigration of Welsh and Irish laborers have combined to make the Mediterranean element a growing factor. Wales seems to be about three-fifths Mediterranean, while Ireland is over two-thirds Mediterranean in blood. Crossing to the Continent, we find that France is racially a composite nation, all three European races being strongly represented in its population. The Alpine element is the largest, being slightly more numerous than the two other stocks put together. Roughly speaking, the Nordics are clustered in the north and the Mediterraneans in the south, the Alpines forming a broad band between. There are, however, many exceptions to this, the 23 race map of France being quite complicated. There is also a distinct connection between race and social status. The upper classes and the city populations tend to be Nordic or Mediterranean, while the peasantry tend to be Alpine in blood. The solid French peasant is certainly a good Alpine type. Spain is predominantly a Mediterranean nation, most of the Spanish people belonging to that race. Nordic blood is mainly confined to the upper classes. The Spanish Alpines are tucked away in the extreme north of the country. They are the descendants of Alpines who entered Spain many thousand years ago; but the racial traits still persist, and the inhabitants of these districts are recognized to-day as being unusually solid, tenacious, and hardworking. As for Portugal, it is overwhelmingly Mediterranean in race. There are no Alpines and very few Nordics. In Southern Portugal the population is distinctly tinged with negro blood. Some centuries ago large numbers of negroes were brought in as slaves to work on the great estates of the south, which has an almost semitropical climate. Furthermore, a certain amount of negro blood seeps in continually from Portugal's African colonies. The result is that the populations both of the southern countryside and of the port towns show many negroid types. The effect of this African infusion upon the Portuguese stock has undoubtedly been a depressing one. Italy, though politically united, is racially divided into two very different peoples. The north is inhabited by a sturdy Alpine stock, considerably leavened with Nordic blood. The south is almost purely Mediterranean in race, 24 tinctured in the extreme south -- especially in Sicily -- by African and Asiatic strains. The racial difference between north and south is so evident that it strikes even the casual tourist. The Italians recognize it frankly. It is well known that the north runs Italy and looks down on the backward south. Turning now to Northern Europe, we find the Scandinavian nations overwhelmingly of Nordic blood. In Norway and Denmark there is a small Alpine element, descended, as already stated, from migrations in prehistoric times. Sweden, however, is 100 per cent Nordic -- the only purely Nordic nation in the world. Holland is predominantly Nordic, with a small Alpine element. Belgium, on the other hand, is sharply divided on race lines. The open plains of Northern and Western Belgium are inhabited by a strongly Nordic stock -- the Flemings. The hilly, wooded regions of Southeastern Belgium are inhabited by a strongly Alpine stock -- the Walloons. The two stocks differ markedly in temperament, speak different languages, and instinctively dislike each other. Common fear of powerful neighbors alone keeps them politically together, and it is very possible that Belgium may some day split up. The racial situation in Germany is decidedly complicated. Taken as a whole, Germany is Alpine rather than Nordic in race, nearly two-thirds of its population being classifiable as Alpines, while the remainder are predominantly Nordic in blood. This, however, is by no means the whole story. To begin with, in Germany, perhaps more than anywhere else in Europe, the two races have intermarried wholesale. It is probable that a clear 25 majority of the German people are of mixed blood. This is particularly true of Central Germany, where one sees great numbers of what scientists call disharmonic types --persons, say, with blondish hair and light eyes, yet with round Alpine heads and thick-set bodies. In Northwestern Germany, however, the population is almost purely Nordic, while in the southern highlands and the eastern provinces the peasantry is practically pure Alpine. Yet here again we get a fresh complication, because in both Southern and Eastern Germany race runs strongly with social status. Even in the most Alpine parts of Germany the aristocracy tends to be Nordic, while the towns are more Nordic than the countryside. This seems to be one of the chief reasons for the marked class distinctions that prevail in German social life. Again, racial differences have much to do with the contrasts in temperament and the latent dislike that exists between north and south. As already remarked, Germany has for centuries been getting more Alpine in blood. The terrible wars that ravaged Germany in the past were immensely destructive of Nordic life. The late war continued this process, while Germany's present economic situation bears much harder on its Nordic than on its Alpine elements. The Alpinization of Germany is proceeding rapidly to-day. Switzerland and German Austria are racially much the same as Southern Germany. Both countries are predominantly Alpine in blood, but with a strong Nordic element, much intermarriage between the races, and a tendency of Nordic blood to prevail in the upper classes and the town populations. The racial make-up of Switzerland is about 26 two-thirds Alpine and one-third Nordic. In German Austria the Nordic element is probably not quite so numerous. When we touch Eastern Europe we find racial conditions very different from those in the countries to the west. In Western Europe the racial elements have been long established and are more or less adjusted to one another. In Eastern Europe, on the other hand, racial movements have been more violent and recent, and racial adjustments are not well established. The whole situation is at once less stable and more complex. Over the greater part of this immense area, stretching from Russia to the Balkan Peninsula, Alpine stocks tend to form the most numerous racial element. This is especially true of the various Slav peoples. Of course, there is no such thing as a Slav race, any more than there is such a thing as a Latin race. In each case the phrase really means a group of peoples with similar languages and cultures. With the Slavs, the fact that they belong mainly to the same race has made a more or less instinctive bond of sympathy between them. Yet this sympathy has not produced the profound political consequences that might offhand be assumed. It has not produced any general political union between the Slav peoples. That would have been dead against the Alpine racial temperament, which, as we have already seen, tends to relatively small political groups more apt to quarrel than to fuse. The Alpines are, however, merely the most numerous clement in the East European racial situation. There is considerable Nordic blood in Northwestern Russia and a good deal of Mediterranean blood in the Balkans, especially in Greece, which is mainly a Mediterranean nation. 27 Besides these familiar stocks, however, there are in Eastem Europe powerful Asiatic elements that make fresh difficulties. For the past 1500 years Eastern Europe has experienced a long series of Asiatic invasions. These Asiatic elements -- Huns, Mongols, Tartars, Turks, Jews, Gypsies, and many others -- have left their mark on the various East European populations. In some parts they have widely intermarried; in other parts they have remained largely distinct, forming separate castes or communities. But in both cases the general effect has been to confuse and complicate the situation. So ends our preliminary survey. In subsequent chapters we will view present-day conditions in the various parts of Europe, discussing many things, but not forgetting that racial factor, which, though often overlooked in human affairs, is perhaps the most fundamental of all..
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